Germany’s banking sector: Facts & Figures
Updated September 2018 – For earlier editions of Facts & Figures click here
The German economy is facing the fifth consecutive upswing year. Although economic momentum slowed somewhat in the first quarter of 2018, overall economic output should nevertheless increase by a little by more than 2% on an annual average. Domestic demand remains robust. It is supported by continued employment growth and decent real wage increases. However, the increasing shortage of skilled workers, persistently high geopolitical uncertainties and concerns about escalating trade disputes are having a braking effect on the economy.
Germany’s banking system comprises three pillars — private commercial banks, public-sector banks, and cooperative banks — distinguished by the legal form and ownership structure.
The private commercial banks represent the largest segment by assets, accounting for 40% of total assets in the banking system. An important feature of the private banks is that they compete keenly not only with banks in other sectors of the industry, but also among themselves. The private banks play a key role for the German export economy, they are involved in 88% of German exports and maintain almost three quarters of the German banking industry’s foreign network.
The public banking sector, comprising savings banks (Sparkassen), Landesbanken and DekaBank, which acts as the central asset manager of the Savings Banks Finance Group, representing 26% of total banks’ assets. There are currently about 400 savings banks. They are normally organised as public-law corporations with local governments as their guarantors/owners. Their business is limited to the area controlled by their local government owners. Other than this regional focus, their business does not differ in any way from that of the private commercial banks. As a result of the so-called regional principle, savings banks do not compete with one another.
Landesbanken were originally designed to act as central banks for the savings banks. In recent years, however, they have been increasingly involved in wholesale funding, investment banking, and international business activities, thus directly competing with commercial banks. The eight Landesbanken at present are owned by the federal states and the regional associations of the savings banks.
In the past, savings banks and Landesbanken were backed by state guarantees (Gewährträgerhaftung and Anstaltslast). The state guarantees were of key importance to Landesbanken since they enabled them to obtain AAA ratings and lower their funding costs. These guarantees ended in 2015, however. Current German law does not allow privately owned banks to have stakes in publicly owned banks (like most savings banks). However, some Landesbanken and savings banks have bought private banks. The level of public involvement in the system therefore continues to be much higher than in other countries of the EU.
The cooperative sector consists of around 900 cooperative banks (Volks- und Raiffeisenbanken) and one central cooperative bank (DZ Bank AG). It accounts for 50% of institutions by number and 17% of total bank assets. The cooperative banks are owned by their members, who are usually their depositors and borrowers as well. By virtue of their legal form, cooperative banks have a mandate to support their members, who represent about half of their customers. But cooperative banks also provide banking services to the general public. Like the savings banks, cooperative banks have a regional focus and are subject to the regional principle.
The number of banks in Germany has dropped sharply in recent years, and by 52% since 1995. Consolidation to achieve economies of scale has taken place largely within the existing pillars. Most consolidation in the savings bank and cooperative sectors (contrary to mergers in the private sector) has been the result of stress rather than proactive business considerations. Pressure to further consolidate in the coming years stems from the low interest rate environment and banking regulation in recent years such as Basel III which increased banks’ capital requirements substantially. German banks fear that real estate and corporate finance could be particularly affected and could seriously restrict banks’ lending capacity.
Nevertheless, accompanied by low interest rates and the overall extraordinarily favourable financing conditions, lending to companies and the self-employed increased to €886 billion in 2017, up by 3.7% on the previous year. Due to the German Energy Transition and the new EU Action Plan “Financing Sustainable Growth”, banks have launched many initiatives in recent years to promote sustainable financing.
The very low and partly negative interest rates at present decrease profit opportunities for banks and increase the risk of distortions and price bubbles as well as the danger of zombie banks and firms. For banks in the euro area the negative deposit rate of the European Central Bank is a special tax with monthly tax earnings of around €500 million. In order to limit the side effects of the negative deposit rate, the Association of German Banks proposes an amount of exemption for the excess liquidity holding at the ECB by commercial banks.
Contributor: Ina Brüggemann firstname.lastname@example.org